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幼儿英语早教----幼儿健康(1)

来源:Hellokid在线英语2017-08-01 09:41:10

 幼儿英语早教----幼儿健康

     Perhaps the best evidence for such a capacity to convey average, rather than transient, ecological information, comes from studies of the effects of a mother’s nutrition on the birth weight of her baby.60 Studies generally find that birth weights tend to be lighter in populations in which nutrition has been marginal for multi generations. Despite this evidence for environmental influence on fetal growth rate and birth size supmenting pregnant women generally has minimal effects on the birth weight of offspring. Thus, it appears that long-term history in an environment may be an important influence on the resources transferred in support of offspring growth, but that fluctuations in intake during pregnancy itself, reflected for instance in dietary supmentation, have comparably modes effects.  This phenotypic inertia—reflecting the lingering biological but non-genetic effects of the mother’s average experiences in the past—could allow the fetus to track those dynamic features of environments that are relatively stable on the timescale of decades or several generations (see Refs 60 and 68). This could allow adjustment to environmental changes that are too rapid to result In modifications in gene frequencies via natural selection, which requires many generations, but that are too chronic to be buffered efficiently by reversible homeostatic processes. In this way, the mother’s body could pass biological “memories”, reflecting her own lifetime of experiences in the local environment, to her developing offspring allowing developmental adjustments to be made in anticipation of conditions likely to be experienced locally. 

 
 幼儿英语早教----幼儿健康
       也许最好的证据是,研究表明母亲的营养对婴儿出生体重的影响,而不是短暂的生态信息。60项研究发现,在营养不良的人群中,出生体重往往较轻。尽管有证据表明环境对胎儿生长速度和生育大小的影响对孕妇出生体重的影响是微乎其微的。因此,在一个环境中,长期的历史可能对转移到支持后代生长的资源有重要的影响,但是在怀孕期间的摄入量的波动,反映在饮食补充上,有比较的模式效应。这种表型惯性反映了母亲在过去的平均经历中挥之不去的生物但非遗传的影响——可能会让胎儿跟踪那些几十年或几代人(见参考文献60和68)相对稳定的动态环境特征。这将允许对环境变化进行调整,这一变化太快,无法通过自然选择来改变基因频率,这需要很多代,但这太过慢性,不能通过可逆的homeo静态过程来有效地缓冲。通过这种方式,母亲的身体可以通过生物“记忆”,反映出她自己在当地环境中的一生经历,以及她的发育中的后代,允许对可能在当地有经验的条件作出发展调整。
 
 幼儿英语早教----幼儿健康
    IMPLICAIONS OF DEVELOPMENTAL PROGRAMMIING FOR HUMAN HEALTH DISPARTIES
   The preceding sections have surveyed some of the evidence that early life stressors can have health effects that linger into adulthood and in some instances may even transcend the present generation to be passed on to offspring. These findings hold promise to help explain why health and disease tend to relate strongly to environmental, social and economic conditions both within and between populations. There is growing evidence that early environment-triggered developmental plasticity can help to clarify two broad problems in public health: disease transitions in populations experiencing rapid cultural, nutritional or lifestyle change, and health disparities within populations marked by chronic inequality and social stratification related to class, ethnicity or social “race”. The discussion ends with a brief review of the evidence that developmental processes contribute to each of these public health issues.
 幼儿英语早教----幼儿健康
       有关人类健康的发展规划的暗示,
对前几部分进行了研究,其中一些证据表明,早期的生活压力可能对健康产生影响,影响到成年期,在某些情况下甚至可能超越现在的一代,将其传给下一代。这些发现有助于解释为什么健康和疾病往往与人口中的环境、社会和经济状况密切相关。有越来越多的证据表明,早期环境引发的发展可塑性可以帮助阐明公共卫生中的两个广泛问题:在人口快速的文化、营养或生活方式变化方面的疾病转变,以及在人口中存在的健康差异,这是由长期不平等和与阶级、种族或社会“种族”有关的社会分层造成的。讨论结束时简要回顾了发展过程对这些公共卫生问题的贡献。
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